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Corruption Causes - Leading to the generation of "speed money" through corruption causes. People feel helpless in the face of corruption causes.
Corruption Causes -
Historical corruption causes is not a modern phenomenon since Action we have historical accounts of the prevalence of corruption in different farm .
In fact one may argue that where there is the power there is a bound to be misuse of power that is corruption but before the establishment of British rule in India the extent of corruption prevalent in different part of country and under different ruler was fluctuating without any predictable courses .
Since the formation of British Indian government public administration in India acquired definite character and criteria for corruption came to be clearly defined it is true that the British rule in India systematically ruined the prosperity of the Indian economy and the British policies were certainly not designed in the best interest of the Indian people .
But the administrative setup established by the British did prescribed norms of official conduct was clearly identified corrupt practices.
By and large the higher level civil servants did not Resort to corrupt practices .
It is said that till the outbreak of the Second World War corruption was largely confined to the the lower ranks of Administration .
The main reason cited for the integrity of the higher Civil Servant in India during the British rule are there aloofness high salaries and smaller size of the departments and administration compare to the present day .
In addition it has been noted that certain departments of the government where more prone to corruption than other .
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corruption in revenue earning department like income tax , custom land revenue dept. Railway etc and in spending departments live public works police etc proverbial even during the British rule .
It is said that slackness in public administration started during the period of II world war and continued right till the time of India independence .
The scarcity associated with work conditions and the singular devotion of the government to make war efforts successful provided special conditions for the the proliferation of corrupt practices in India .
The post Independence atmosphere was conductive to increasing incidence of corruption .
The efforts of the new Indian government to tackle problems created by the post war economy partition and the refugee problem did not leave much scope for the government to deal with corruption .
In fact the introduction of controls licences and permits open the floodgates of corruption in independent India .
The political atmosphere with the assumption of power by new politicians and non official also worsened this situation.
The continuing decline of integrity in administration has to be seen against the historical corruption causes perspective.
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Corruption Causes In India
Personal And Moral -
The root cause of corruption at the level of individual is to be seen in the human weakness of misuse of any power .
By nature of human being would like to have more and more of power money and status in society .
Shortcuts to achieve this and success stories when unaccompanied by retribution are likely to whet the appetite of most human beings .
Unless the moral of the society are strong personal moral values cannot be expected to have decisive influence on the course of action of a man .
Sore in an atmosphere of corruption or in a permissive society moral values are likely to have weak influence on individual .
It has also been pointed out that modern material culture fueled inordinate ambition has supplied the traditional culture and is responsible for the general tendency of the people to attach no moral degradation to corrupt practices .
Modern Civilization has brought in new attitudes and norms and tend to glorify success at all cost .
The so called economic factors responsible for corruption can also be tracer to the personal and moral factor.
It is said that poverty is a driving force for corruption .
But they well to do government officials do not shrink from corruption in spite of absence of poverty .
While there is a case of removing acute poverty among lower levels of government servants it is absurd to argue that higher and higher salaries will issue or decline of corruption in government departments .
It has been demonstrated in western countries that the relatively lower salaries paid to the top level Civil Servant compared to the private sector officers have not made the Civil Service there in any way less attractive.
The power Prestige and security of tenure attached two civil services are expected to more than offset the the disincentive of modest emolument.
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Types And Causes Of Corruption
Social And Political
This social climate is the vital factor in containing or multiplying corruption
in any country .
Lack of strong public opinion against the evil of corruption has become the ordinary way of life in the present day society .
corruption is tolerated Contender and even taken as normal behaviour .
The material culture induces main to judge person by there possessions and their outward success .
Simulation Envy and competition in to more and more person to become corrupt by observing others and by aspiring to imitate the lifestyle of corrupt person who lead a comfortable and sometimes grandiose life .
When politicians are corrupt they induce administrator to Resort to corrupt practices and work out a scheme in which both politician and administrator will be the beneficiaries .
Even honest a young administrator and Pressurised and compelled to adopt malpractice and ultimately to Resort to serious corruption by the force of prevailing circumstances.
Influential pressure groups have emerged on the Indian political scene which seeks to get all their work done only through dubious and corrupt means.
Commercial and industrial establishment big and small believe in a chewing their objective only through corruption .
In particular hordes of speculators black money holder smuggler etc not at all think of straight government business .
The traditional role of contractor Builders and suppliers to the government in supplying inferior goods or executing substandard work thereby getting sizeable ill earned profit which they can share who is the government servant is well known .
Negatively there is hardly any popular will to fight against corruption .
A few voluntary organisation which have taken up the tasks of exposing corruption have been wholly effective .
Organisations such as Chambers of Commerce trade unions service associations etc .
Which could have effectively carried on a Crusade against corruption are practically silent and sometimes acquiesce in standard corrupt practice.
Corruption Causes And Effects
Defective laws and judicial procedure relating to corruption
System of administration in which there is sample scope for middleman contact man influence peddler private establishment frequently engage retired officers as licence officer Public Relations man it is in order to bring undue influence on administrator particularly senior Bureaucrats
Effect of Administrative corruption are serious and many
Corrupt administration fail to inspire confidence and cuts at the root of credibility of the government people perceive the government as one carried on for profit benefit rather than for public welfare of course it is possible that when the climate of corruption process the limit people may throw the government
But administrative corruption can eat at the Vital of the Indian Polity in a more serious manner
Sometimes even honest ministers feel helpless in the face of all pervasive corruption in the department
Welfare program fail to benefit the target group and the piece of development is much reduced moving the corruption
The impact of corruption in Education results in the production of new generation of citizens lacking in fundamental values.
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Example Of Corruption
Modes Of Corruption -
There are innumerable forms of corruption so it is difficult to prepare a comprehensive list of all corrupt practices
Sum of the well known forms are :
Extravagant expenditure of public money,
Misuse of government machinery during the election and at other Times,
Entertainment for hospitality corruption,
Speed money ,
Percentage cut ,
corruption in posting and transfer,
corruption during official tour,
Misuse of subordinates for private use ,
Misappropriation of public money ,
Position of disproportionate assets,
Moral turpitude the list is definitely endless.
The central Vigilance Commission of India has identified 27 modes of corruption causes including some of the above.