Sunday, 13 September 2020

Corruption Causes - USA, UK And Western Europe.

 Good morning friend, 

Corruption Causes -

Corruption Causes - Leading to the generation of "speed money" through corruption causes. People feel helpless in the face of corruption causes

Corruption Causes -

Historical  corruption causes  is not a modern phenomenon since Action  we have historical accounts of the prevalence of corruption in different farm .

In fact one may argue that where there is the power there is a bound to be misuse of power that is corruption but before the establishment of British rule in India the extent of corruption prevalent in different part of country and under different ruler was fluctuating without any predictable courses .

Since the formation of British Indian government public administration in India acquired definite character and criteria for corruption came to be clearly defined it is true that the British rule in India systematically ruined the prosperity of the Indian economy and the British policies were certainly not designed in the best interest of the Indian people .

But the administrative setup established by the British did prescribed norms of official conduct was clearly identified corrupt practices.

By and large the higher level civil servants did not Resort to corrupt practices .

It is said that till the outbreak of the Second World War corruption was largely confined to the the lower ranks of Administration .

The main reason cited for the integrity of the higher Civil Servant in India during the British rule are there aloofness high salaries and smaller size of the departments and administration compare to the present day .

In addition it has been noted that certain departments of the government where more prone to corruption than other .

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corruption in revenue earning department like income tax , custom land revenue dept. Railway etc and in spending departments live public works police etc proverbial even during the British rule .

It is said that slackness in public administration started during the period of II world war and continued right till the time of India independence .

The scarcity associated with work conditions and the singular devotion of the government to make war efforts successful provided special conditions for the the proliferation of corrupt practices in India .

The post Independence atmosphere was conductive to increasing incidence of corruption .

The efforts of the new Indian government to tackle problems created by the post war economy partition and the refugee problem did not leave much scope for the government to deal with corruption .

In fact the introduction of controls licences and permits open the floodgates of corruption in independent India .

The political atmosphere with the assumption of power by new politicians and non official also worsened  this situation. 

The continuing decline of integrity in administration has to be seen against the historical corruption causes perspective.

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Corruption Causes In India 

Personal And Moral -

Corruption Causes In India

The root cause of corruption at the level of individual is to be seen in the human weakness of misuse of any power .

By nature of human being would like to have more and more of power money and status in society .

Shortcuts to achieve this and success stories when  unaccompanied by retribution are likely to whet the appetite of most human beings .

Unless the moral of the society are strong personal moral values cannot be expected to have  decisive influence on the course of action of a man .

Sore in an atmosphere of corruption or in a permissive society moral values are likely to have weak influence on individual .

It has also been pointed out that modern material culture fueled inordinate ambition has supplied the traditional culture and is responsible for the general tendency of the people to attach no moral degradation to corrupt practices .

Modern Civilization has brought in new attitudes and norms and tend to glorify success at all cost .

The so called economic factors responsible for corruption can also be tracer to the personal and moral factor.

It is said that poverty is a driving force for corruption .

But they well to do government officials do not shrink from corruption in spite of absence of poverty .

While there is a case of removing acute poverty among lower levels of government servants it is absurd to argue that higher and higher salaries will issue or decline of corruption in government departments .

It has been demonstrated in western countries that the relatively lower salaries paid to the top level Civil Servant compared to the private sector officers have not made the Civil Service there in any way less attractive. 

The  power Prestige and security of tenure attached two civil services are expected to more than offset the the disincentive of modest emolument.

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Types And Causes Of Corruption 

 Social And Political  

Types And Causes Of Corruption

This social climate is the vital factor in containing or multiplying corruption

in any country .

Lack of strong public opinion against the evil of corruption has become the ordinary way of life in the present day society .

corruption is tolerated Contender and even taken as normal behaviour .

The material culture induces main to judge person by there possessions and their outward success .

Simulation Envy and competition in to more and more person to become corrupt by observing others and by aspiring to imitate the lifestyle of corrupt person who lead a comfortable and sometimes grandiose life .

When politicians are corrupt they induce administrator to Resort to corrupt practices and work out a scheme in which both politician and administrator will be the beneficiaries .

Even honest  a young administrator and Pressurised and compelled to adopt malpractice and ultimately to Resort to serious corruption by the force of prevailing circumstances. 

Influential pressure groups have emerged on the Indian political scene which seeks to get all their work done only through dubious and corrupt means. 

Commercial and industrial establishment big and small believe in a chewing their objective only through corruption .

In particular hordes of speculators black money holder smuggler etc not at all think of straight government business .

The traditional role of contractor Builders and suppliers to the government in supplying inferior goods or executing substandard work thereby getting sizeable ill earned  profit which they can share who is the government servant is well known .

Negatively there is hardly any popular will to fight against corruption .

A few voluntary organisation which have taken up the tasks of exposing corruption have been wholly effective .

Organisations such as Chambers of Commerce trade unions service associations etc .

Which could have effectively carried on a Crusade against corruption are practically silent and sometimes acquiesce in standard corrupt practice.

Corruption Causes And Effects

Corruption Causes And Effects

Defective laws and judicial procedure relating to corruption 

System of administration in which there is sample scope for middleman contact man influence peddler private establishment frequently engage retired officers as licence officer Public Relations man it is in order to bring undue influence on administrator particularly senior Bureaucrats 

Effect of Administrative corruption are serious and many 

Corrupt administration fail to inspire confidence and cuts at the root of credibility of the government people perceive the government as one carried on for profit benefit rather than for public welfare of course it is possible that when the climate of corruption process the limit people may throw the government 

But administrative corruption can eat at the Vital of the Indian Polity in a more serious manner 

Sometimes even honest ministers feel helpless in the face of all pervasive corruption in the department 

Welfare program fail to benefit the target group and the piece of development is much reduced moving the corruption 

The impact of corruption in Education results in the production of new generation of citizens lacking in fundamental values.

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Example Of Corruption 

Modes Of Corruption - 

Example Of Corruption

There are innumerable forms of corruption so it is difficult to prepare a comprehensive list of all corrupt practices 

Sum of the well known forms are : 


Nepotism ,

Favouritism ,

Patronage ,

Extravagant expenditure of public money, 

Misuse of government machinery during the election and at other Times, 

Entertainment for hospitality corruption,

Speed money , 

Percentage cut , 

corruption in posting and transfer, 

corruption during official tour, 

Misuse of subordinates for private use ,

Misappropriation of public money , 

Position of disproportionate assets, 

Moral turpitude the list is definitely endless. 

The central Vigilance Commission of India has identified 27 modes of corruption causes including some of the above.

Monday, 31 August 2020

Administrative Corruption - Real Life Silly Mistake Lesson.

 Good morning friend, 

Administrative Corruption

Administrative Corruption - Although there are many common features and links between political corruption and administrative corruption . 

Administrative Corruption  - Prevalence of corruption , it is well known that corruption pervades the atmosphere in the politics and Administrative Corruption  not only in India but throughout the world. Even in communist countries corruption cases have been reported. The extent of corruption in western democracies USA, UK and western Europe is not much compared to the situation prevailing in most developing countries of the world.

However even in the advanced democracy is periodically major corruption cases and scandals are reported .

Does corruption is no doubt a global phenomenon .

But by the same token it cannot be Condoned or glossed over.

Concept Of Administrative Corruption  In India -

Concept Of Administrative Corruption

Widespread prevalence of corruption in India has been admitted he won by official commissions and other enquiry bodies .

The general observation is that incidence of corruption has been systematically accelerating since independence and has assumed monteris proportions right now. 

One can easily differentiate between Political corruption and administrative corruption they do differ in many vital aspect .

Sweet treat below the definition cause modes effect and extent of corruption in public administration.

We also difficult this tape taken and the machinery set up to deal with Administrative Corruption .

Administrative Corruption Meaning And Definition -

Administrative Corruption Meaning

No formal definition of corruption is complete in all respect because corruption has innumerable facet.

Negatively corruption may be defined it as lack of integrity which term may be given as board a connotations as we like.

Honesty sincerity morality and and the like can be brought within the scope of integrity.

However if we extend the scope of corruption to include all deviation from moral standard the problem of delineation of the Ambit of corruption with the view to taking legal action will become really insurmountable. According to one view Administrative Corruption  may include bribery Patronage undue influence and unjustified official decision.

In another sense corruption may defined as wilful misuse of ones position , status and official power and Prestige by a public administrator for direct or indirect personal gain.

Any act of corruption is detrimental to the interest of some affected parties or the community as a whole.

Generally inefficiency and negligence although they may result in loss to the government and the public may not amount to corruption in administration.

It is good to remember that Administrative Corruption  has to be clearly demarcated from the general climate of corruption which may be prevalent in the country. 

Although politician May resorts to Political corruption and businessman and traders may indulge in anti social and corrupt practices such as black marketing profiteering hoarding etc. 

They are not so directly answerable for their corrupt acts as the public administration official are.

But in our treatment of Administrative Corruption  we may have to refer to certain effect of Political corruption  as well.

In fact Prevention of corruption Act 1947 applied to all public servant including ministers legislators and other non officials in addition to all categories of Administrative officials.

Corruption In Public Administration And Machinery 

Corruption In Public Administration

All there are different machinery created by central and state governments to deal with incidents of Administrative Corruption 

The centre Vigilance Commission is the main agency of the central government to deal with the major cases of corruption.

Although it is a non statutory and advisory body it can play an effective role in containing corruption in the government departments since it is wasted with sufficient powers for investigation.

Its reports along with the governments actions on its recommendations is placed before the parliament. 

The chief Vigilance Commissioner enjoy sufficient security of tenure in order to function independently.

The centre Bureau of Investigation set up in 1963 takes up investigation of serious cases of corruption referred to it by the government are the departments.

Since 1964 each States has a vigilant Commission which reforms are form functions similar to the central Vigilance Commission anti corruption department or wings is also functioning in several States.

Additional step to fight administrative corruption 

Additional step to fight administrative corruption

Political will essential .

All party Accord desirable. 

The need to break the Nexus between Political corruption  and Administrative corruption  determined efforts by the government will succeed in insurance that the government servants do not Resort to corruption on the plea that the politician and the non officials are corrupt .

Strong determination and necessary legislation to break the present stranglehold of government servants for the government particularly in matters like elimiration of corruption the government staff generally resist all serious atoms of governments to put down corruption and place innumerable hurdles in the functioning of the honest government the government and the public will have to act in Unison to deal with this situation.

Exemplary punishment for the corrupt and wide publicity for search cases. 

Uniform and universal application of standard in dealing with corrupt practices selective dictation and punishment of the corrupt will not have salutary effect on the mass of government for once .

New norm of integrity necessary new detection methods to be introduced .

Reporting against the corrupt persons in the department by the others staffs to be encouraged new anti corruption machinery which will be open to the public for reporting Complaint and Grievance real protection to reporting person .

Loopholes in laws to be plugged. 

Protection to honest civil servants against victimisation.

Every gazette officers ought to avoid this Bad Administrative Corruption system in the all management or govt. Services for the rights and benefits to all Nation or Public.